RFC 2447







Network Working Group                                         F. Dawson
Request for Comments: 2447                                        Lotus
Category: Standards Track                                    S. Mansour
                                                               Netscape
                                                          S. Silverberg
                                                              Microsoft
                                                          November 1998


           iCalendar Message-Based Interoperability Protocol
                                 (iMIP)

Status of this Memo

   This document specifies an Internet standards track protocol for the
   Internet community, and requests discussion and suggestions for
   improvements.  Please refer to the current edition of the "Internet
   Official Protocol Standards" (STD 1) for the standardization state
   and status of this protocol.  Distribution of this memo is unlimited.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (1998).  All Rights Reserved.

Abstract

   This document, [iMIP], specifies a binding from the iCalendar
   Transport-independent Interoperability Protocol (iTIP) to Internet
   email-based transports. Calendaring entries defined by the iCalendar
   Object Model [iCAL] are composed using constructs from [RFC 822],
   [RFC 2045], [RFC 2046], [RFC 2047], [RFC 2048] and [RFC 2049].

   This document is based on discussions within the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF) Calendaring and Scheduling (CALSCH) working group.
   More information about the IETF CALSCH working group activities can
   be found on the IMC web site at http://www.imc.org, the IETF web site
   at http://www.ietf.org/html.charters/calsch-charter.html. Refer to
   the references within this document for further information on how to
   access these various documents.












Dawson, et. al.             Standards Track                     [Page 1]

RFC 2447 iMIP November 1998 Table of Contents 1 INTRODUCTION........................................................2 1.1 RELATED MEMOS ...................................................2 1.2 FORMATTING CONVENTIONS ..........................................3 1.3 TERMINOLOGY .....................................................4 2 MIME MESSAGE FORMAT BINDING.........................................4 2.1 MIME MEDIA TYPE .................................................4 2.2 SECURITY ........................................................4 2.2.1 Authorization ...............................................4 2.2.2 Authentication ..............................................5 2.2.3 Confidentiality .............................................5 2.3 [RFC 822] ADDRESSES .............................................5 2.4 CONTENT TYPE ....................................................5 2.5 CONTENT-TRANSFER-ENCODING .......................................6 2.6 CONTENT-DISPOSITION .............................................6 3 SECURITY CONSIDERATIONS.............................................7 4 EXAMPLES............................................................8 4.1 SINGLE COMPONENT WITH AN ATTACH PROPERTY ........................8 4.2 USING MULTIPART ALTERNATIVE FOR LOW FIDELITY CLIENTS ............8 4.3 SINGLE COMPONENT WITH AN ATTACH PROPERTY AND INLINE ATTACHMENT ..9 4.4 MULTIPLE SIMILAR COMPONENTS ....................................10 4.5 MULTIPLE MIXED COMPONENTS ......................................11 4.6 DETAILED COMPONENTS WITH AN ATTACH PROPERTY ....................13 5 RECOMMENDED PRACTICES..............................................14 5.1 USE OF CONTENT AND MESSAGE IDS .................................14 6 BIBLIOGRAPHY.......................................................15 7 AUTHORS' ADDRESSES.................................................16 8 FULL COPYRIGHT STATEMENT...........................................18 1 Introduction This binding document provides the transport specific information necessary convey iCalendar Transport-independent Interoperability Protocol (iTIP) over MIME as defined in [RFC 822] and [RFC 2045]. 1.1 Related Memos Implementers will need to be familiar with several other memos that, along with this memo, form a framework for Internet calendaring and scheduling standards. This document, [iMIP], specifies an Internet email binding for iTIP. [iCAL] - specifies a core specification of objects, data types, properties and property parameters; Dawson, et. al. Standards Track [Page 2]
RFC 2447 iMIP November 1998 [iTIP] - specifies an interoperability protocol for scheduling between different implementations; This memo does not attempt to repeat the specification of concepts or definitions from these other memos. Where possible, references are made to the memo that provides for the specification of these concepts or definitions. 1.2 Formatting Conventions The mechanisms defined in this memo are defined in prose. In order to refer to elements of the calendaring and scheduling model, core object or interoperability protocol defined in [iCAL] and [iTIP] some formatting conventions have been used. The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY" and "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC 2119]. Calendaring and scheduling roles are referred to in quoted-strings of text with the first character of each word in upper case. For example, "Organizer" refers to a role of a "Calendar User" within the scheduling protocol defined by [iTIP]. Calendar components defined by [iCAL] are referred to with capitalized, quoted-strings of text. All calendar components start with the letter "V". For example, "VEVENT" refers to the event calendar component, "VTODO" refers to the to-do calendar component and "VJOURNAL" refers to the daily journal calendar component. Scheduling methods defined by [iTIP] are referred to with capitalized, quoted-strings of text. For example, "REQUEST" refers to the method for requesting a scheduling calendar component be created or modified, "REPLY" refers to the method a recipient of a request uses to update their status with the "Organizer" of the calendar component. Properties defined by [iCAL] are referred to with capitalized, quoted-strings of text, followed by the word "property". For example, "ATTENDEE" property refers to the iCalendar property used to convey the calendar address of a calendar user. Property parameters defined by [iCAL] are referred to with lower case, quoted-strings of text, followed by the word "parameter". For example, "value" parameter refers to the iCalendar property parameter used to override the default data type for a property value. Dawson, et. al. Standards Track [Page 3]
RFC 2447 iMIP November 1998 1.3 Terminology The email terms used in this memo are defined in [RFC 822] and [RFC- 2045]. The calendaring and scheduling terms used in this memo are defined in [iCAL] and [iTIP]. 2 MIME Message Format Binding This section defines the message binding to the MIME electronic mail transport. The sections below refer to the "originator" and the "respondent" of an iMIP message. Typically, the originator is the "Organizer" of an event. The respondent is an "Attendee" of the event. The [RFC 822] "Reply-To" header typically contains the email address of the originator or respondent of an event. However, this cannot be guaranteed as Mail User Agents (MUA) are not required to enforce iMIP semantics. 2.1 MIME Media Type A MIME entity containing content information formatted according to this document will be referenced as a "text/calendar" content type. It is assumed that this content type will be transported through a MIME electronic mail transport. 2.2 Security This section addresses several aspects of security including Authentication, Authorization and Confidentiality. Authentication and confidentiality can be achieved using [RFC 1847] that specifies the Security Multiparts for MIME. This framework defines new content types and subtypes of multipart: signed and encrypted. Each contains two body parts: one for the protected data and another for the control information necessary to remove the protection. 2.2.1 Authorization In [iTIP] messages, only the "Organizer" is authorized to modify or cancel calendar entries they organize. That is, spoof@xyz.com is not allowed to modify or cancel a meeting that was organized by a@example.com. Furthermore, only the respondent has the authorization to indicate their status to the "Organizer". That is, the "Organizer" must ignore an [iTIP] message from spoof@xyz.com that declines a meeting invitation for b@example.com. Dawson, et. al. Standards Track [Page 4]
RFC 2447 iMIP November 1998 Implementations of iMIP SHOULD verify the authenticity of the creator of an iCalendar object before taking any action. The methods for doing this are presented later in this document. [RFC 1847] Message flow in iTIP supports someone working on behalf of a "Calendar User" through use of the "sent-by" parameter that is associated with the "ATTENDEE" and "ORGANIZER" properties. However, there is no mechanism to verify whether or not a "Calendar User" has authorized someone to work on their behalf. It is left to implementations to provide mechanisms for the "Calendar Users" to make that decision. 2.2.2 Authentication Authentication can be performed using an implementation of [RFC 1847] "multipart/signed" that supports public/private key certificates. Authentication is possible only on messages that have been signed. Authenticating an unsigned message may not be reliable. 2.2.3 Confidentiality To ensure confidentiality using iMIP implementations should utilize [RFC 1847]-compliant encryption. The protocol does not restrict a "Calendar User Agent" (CUA) from forwarding iCalendar objects to other users or agents. 2.3 [RFC 822] Addresses The calendar address specified within the "ATTENDEE" property in an iCalendar object MUST be a fully qualified, [RFC 822] address specification for the corresponding "Organizer" or "Attendee" of the "VEVENT" or "VTODO". Because [iTIP] does not preclude "Attendees" from forwarding "VEVENTS" or "VTODOS" to others, the [RFC 822] "Sender" value may not equal that of the "Organizer". Additionally, the "Organizer" or "Attendee" cannot be reliably inferred by the [RFC 822] "Sender" or "Reply-to" values of an iMIP message. The relevant address MUST be ascertained by opening the "text/calendar" MIME body part and examining the "ATTENDEE" and "ORGANIZER" properties. 2.4 Content Type A MIME body part containing content information that conforms to this document MUST have an [RFC 2045] "Content-Type" value of "text/calendar". The [RFC 2045] "Content-Type" header field must also include the type parameter "method". The value MUST be the same as the value of the "METHOD" calendar property within the iCalendar Dawson, et. al. Standards Track [Page 5]
RFC 2447 iMIP November 1998 object. This means that a MIME message containing multiple iCalendar objects with different method values must be further encapsulated with a "multipart/mixed" MIME entity. This will allow each of the iCalendar objects to be encapsulated within their own "text/calendar" MIME entity. A "charset" parameter MUST be present if the iCalendar object contains characters that are not part of the US-ASCII character set. [RFC 2046] discusses the selection of an appropriate "charset" value. The optional "component" parameter defines the iCalendar component type contained within the iCalendar object. The following is an example of this header field with a value that indicates an event message. Content-Type:text/calendar; method=request; charset=UTF-8; component=vevent The "text/calendar" content type allows for the scheduling message type to be included in a MIME message with other content information (i.e., "multipart/mixed") or included in a MIME message with a clear-text, human-readable form of the scheduling message (i.e., "multipart/alternative"). In order to permit the information in the scheduling message to be understood by MIME user agents (UA) that do not support the "text/calendar" content type, scheduling messages SHOULD be sent with an alternative, human-readable form of the information. 2.5 Content-Transfer-Encoding Note that the default character set for iCalendar objects is UTF-8. A transfer encoding SHOULD be used for iCalendar objects containing any characters that are not part of the US-ASCII character set. 2.6 Content-Disposition The handling of a MIME part should be based on its [RFC 2045] "Content-Type". However, this is not guaranteed to work in all environments. Some environments handle MIME attachments based on their file type or extension. To operate correctly in these environments, implementations may wish to include a "Content- Disposition" property to define a file name. Dawson, et. al. Standards Track [Page 6]
RFC 2447 iMIP November 1998 3 Security Considerations The security threats that applications must address when implementing iTIP are detailed in [iTIP]. Two spoofing threats are identified: Spoofing the "Organizer", and Spoofing an "Attendee". To address these threats, the originator of an iCalendar object must be authenticated by a recipient. Once authenticated, a determination can be made as to whether or not the originator is authorized to perform the requested operation. Compliant applications MUST support signing and encrypting text/calendar attachments using a mechanism based on Security Multiparts for MIME [RFC 1847] to facilitate the authentication the originator of the iCalendar object. Implementations MAY provide a means for users to disable signing and encrypting. The steps are described below: 1. The iCalendar object MUST be signed by the "Organizer" sending an update or the "Attendee" sending a reply. 2. Using the [RFC 1847]-compliant security mechanism, determine who signed the iCalendar object. This is the "signer". Note that the signer is not necessarily the person sending an e-mail message since an e-mail message can be forwarded. 3. Correlate the signer to an "ATTENDEE" property in the iCalendar object. If the signer cannot be correlated to an "ATTENDEE" property, ignore the message. 4. Determine whether or not the "ATTENDEE" is authorized to perform the operation as defined by [iTIP]. If the conditions are not met, ignore the message. 5. If all the above conditions are met, the message can be processed. To address the confidentiality security threats, signed iMIP messages SHOULD be encrypted by a mechanism based on Security Multiparts for MIME [RFC 1847]. It is possible to receive iMIP messages sent by someone working on behalf of another "Calendar User". This is determined by examining the "sent-by" parameter in the relevant "ORGANIZER" or "ATTENDEE" property. [iCAL] and [iTIP] provide no mechanism to verify that a "Calendar User" has authorized someone else to work on their behalf. To address this security issue, implementations MUST provide mechanisms for the "Calendar Users" to make that decision before applying changes from someone working on behalf of a "Calendar User". Dawson, et. al. Standards Track [Page 7]
RFC 2447 iMIP November 1998 4 Examples 4.1 Single Component With An ATTACH Property This minimal message shows how an iCalendar object references an attachment. The attachment is accessible via its URL. From: sman@netscape.com To: stevesil@microsoft.com Subject: Phone Conference Mime-Version: 1.0 Content-Type:text/calendar; method=REQUEST; charset=US-ASCII Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit BEGIN:VCALENDAR PRODID:-//ACME/DesktopCalendar//EN METHOD:REQUEST VERSION:2.0 BEGIN:VEVENT ORGANIZER:mailto:sman@netscape.com ATTENDEE;ROLE=CHAIR;ATTSTAT=ACCEPTED:mailto:sman@netscape.com ATTENDEE;RSVP=YES:mailto:stevesil@microsoft.com DTSTAMP:19970611T190000Z DTSTART:19970701T210000Z DTEND:19970701T230000Z SUMMARY:Phone Conference DESCRIPTION:Please review the attached document. UID:calsvr.example.com-873970198738777 ATTACH:ftp://ftp.bar.com/pub/docs/foo.doc STATUS:CONFIRMED END:VEVENT END:VCALENDAR 4.2 Using Multipart Alternative for Low Fidelity Clients This example shows how a client can emit a multipart message that includes both a plain text version as well as the full iCalendar object. Clients that do not support text/calendar will still be capable of rendering the plain text representation. From: foo1@example.com To: foo2@example.com Subject: Phone Conference Mime-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: multipart/alternative;boundary="01BD3665.3AF0D360" --01BD3665.3AF0D360 Content-Type: text/plain;charset=us-ascii Dawson, et. al. Standards Track [Page 8]
RFC 2447 iMIP November 1998 Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit This is an alternative representation of a TEXT/CALENDAR MIME Object When: 7/1/1997 10:00AM PDT - 7/1/97 10:30AM PDT Where: Organizer: foo1@example.com Summary: Phone Conference --01BD3665.3AF0D360 Content-Type:text/calendar; method=REQUEST; charset=US-ASCII Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit BEGIN:VCALENDAR PRODID:-//ACME/DesktopCalendar//EN METHOD:REQUEST VERSION:2.0 BEGIN:VEVENT ORGANIZER:mailto:foo1@example.com ATTENDEE;ROLE=CHAIR;ATTSTAT=ACCEPTED:mailto:foo1@example.com ATTENDEE;RSVP=YES;TYPE=INDIVIDUAL:mailto:foo2@example.com DTSTAMP:19970611T190000Z DTSTART:19970701T170000Z DTEND:19970701T173000Z SUMMARY:Phone Conference UID:calsvr.example.com-8739701987387771 SEQUENCE:0 STATUS:CONFIRMED END:VEVENT END:VCALENDAR --01BD3665.3AF0D360 4.3 Single Component With An ATTACH Property and Inline Attachment This example shows how a message containing an iCalendar object references an attached document. The reference is made using a Content-id (CID). Thus, the iCalendar object and the document are packaged in a multipart/related encapsulation. From: foo1@example.com To: foo2@example.com Subject: Phone Conference Mime-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: multipart/related; boundary="boundary-example-1"; type=text/calendar --boundary-example-1 Dawson, et. al. Standards Track [Page 9]
RFC 2447 iMIP November 1998 Content-Type:text/calendar; method=REQUEST; charset=US-ASCII Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit Content-Disposition: attachment; filename="event.vcs" BEGIN:VCALENDAR PRODID:-//ACME/DesktopCalendar//EN METHOD:REQUEST VERSION:2.0 BEGIN:VEVENT ORGANIZER:mailto:foo1@example.com ATTENDEE;ROLE=CHAIR;ATTSTAT=ACCEPTED:mailto:foo1@example.com ATTENDEE;RSVP=YES;TYPE=INDIVIDUAL:mailto:foo2@example.com DTSTAMP:19970611T190000Z DTSTART:19970701T180000Z DTEND:19970701T183000Z SUMMARY:Phone Conference UID:calsvr.example.com-8739701987387771 ATTACH:cid:123456789@example.com SEQUENCE:0 STATUS:CONFIRMED END:VEVENT END:VCALENDAR --boundary-example-1 Content-Type: application/msword; name="FieldReport.doc" Content-Transfer-Encoding: base64 Content-Disposition: inline; filename="FieldReport.doc" Content-ID: <123456789@example.com> 0M8R4KGxGuEAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAPgADAP7/CQAGAAAAAAAAAAABAAAARAAAAAAA AAAAEAAAQAAAAAEAAAD+////AAAAAEUAAAD///////////////////////////////// --boundary-example-1-- 4.4 Multiple Similar Components Multiple iCalendar components of the same type can be included in the iCalendar object when the METHOD is the same for each component. From: foo1@example.com To: foo2@example.com Subject: Summer Company Holidays Mime-Version: 1.0 Content-Type:text/calendar; method=PUBLISH; charset=US-ASCII Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit Content-Disposition: attachment; filename="event.vcs" Dawson, et. al. Standards Track [Page 10]
RFC 2447 iMIP November 1998 BEGIN:VCALENDAR PRODID:-//ACME/DESKTOPCALENDAR//EN METHOD:PUBLISH VERSION:2.0 BEGIN:VEVENT ORGANIZER:MAILTO:FOO1@EXAMPLE.COM DTSTAMP:19970611T150000Z DTSTART:19970701T150000Z DTEND:19970701T230000Z SUMMARY:Company Picnic DESCRIPTION:Food and drink will be provided UID:CALSVR.EXAMPLE.COM-873970198738777-1 SEQUENCE:0 STATUS:CONFIRMED END:VEVENT BEGIN:VEVENT ORGANIZER:MAILTO:FOO1@EXAMPLE.COM DTSTAMP:19970611T190000Z DTSTART:19970715T150000Z DTEND:19970715T230000Z SUMMARY:Company Bowling Tournament DESCRIPTION:We have 10 lanes reserved UID:CALSVR.EXAMPLE.COM-873970198738777-2 SEQUENCE:0 STATUS:CONFIRMED END:VEVENT END:VCALENDAR 4.5 Multiple Mixed Components Different component types must be encapsulated in separate iCalendar objects. From: foo1@example.com To: foo2@example.com Subject: Phone Conference Mime-Version: 1.0 Content-Type:multipart/mixed;boundary="--FEE3790DC7E35189CA67CE2C" This is a multi-part message in MIME format. ----FEE3790DC7E35189CA67CE2C Content-Type:text/calendar; method=REQUEST; charset=US-ASCII Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit Content-Disposition: attachment; filename="event1.vcs" Dawson, et. al. Standards Track [Page 11]
RFC 2447 iMIP November 1998 BEGIN:VCALENDAR PRODID:-//ACME/DesktopCalendar//EN METHOD:REQUEST VERSION:2.0 BEGIN:VEVENT ORGANIZER:mailto:foo1@example.com ATTENDEE;ROLE=CHAIR;ATTSTAT=ACCEPTED:mailto:foo1@example.com ATTENDEE;RSVP=YES;TYPE=INDIVIDUAL:mailto:foo2@example.com DTSTAMP:19970611T190000Z DTSTART:19970701T210000Z DTEND:19970701T230000Z SUMMARY:Phone Conference DESCRIPTION:Discuss what happened at the last meeting UID:calsvr.example.com-8739701987387772 SEQUENCE:0 STATUS:CONFIRMED END:VEVENT END:VCALENDAR ----FEE3790DC7E35189CA67CE2C Content-Type:text/calendar; method=REQUEST; charset=US-ASCII Content-Transfer-Encoding:7bit Content-Disposition: attachment; filename="todo1.vcs" BEGIN:VCALENDAR PRODID:-//ACME/DesktopCalendar//EN METHOD:REQUEST VERSION:2.0 BEGIN:VTODO DUE:19970701T090000-0700 ORGANIZER:mailto:foo1@example.com ATTENDEE;ROLE=CHAIR;ATTSTAT=ACCEPTED:mailto:foo1@example.com ATTENDEE;RSVP=YES:mailto:foo2@example.com SUMMARY:Phone Conference DESCRIPTION:Discuss a new location for the company picnic UID:calsvr.example.com-td-8739701987387773 SEQUENCE:0 STATUS:NEEDS ACTION END:VEVENT END:VCALENDAR ----FEE3790DC7E35189CA67CE2C Dawson, et. al. Standards Track [Page 12]
RFC 2447 iMIP November 1998 4.6 Detailed Components With An ATTACH Property This example shows the format of a message containing a group meeting between three individuals. The multipart/related encapsulation is used because the iCalendar object contains an ATTACH property that uses a CID to reference the attachment. From: foo1@example.com MIME-Version: 1.0 To: foo2@example.com,foo3@example.com Subject: REQUEST - Phone Conference Content-Type:multipart/related;boundary="--FEE3790DC7E35189CA67CE2C" ----FEE3790DC7E35189CA67CE2C Content-Type: multipart/alternative; boundary="--00FEE3790DC7E35189CA67CE2C00" ----00FEE3790DC7E35189CA67CE2C00 Content-Type: text/plain; charset=us-ascii Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit When: 7/1/1997 10:00PM PDT- 7/1/97 10:30 PM PDT Where: Organizer: foo1@example.com Summary: Let's discuss the attached document ----00FEE3790DC7E35189CA67CE2C00 Content-Type:text/calendar; method=REQUEST; charset=US-ASCII; Component=vevent Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit Content-Disposition: attachment; filename="event.vcs" BEGIN:VCALENDAR PRODID:-//ACME/DesktopCalendar//EN PROFILE:REQUEST PROFILE-VERSION:1.0 VERSION:2.0 BEGIN:VEVENT ORGANIZER:foo1@example.com ATTENDEE;ROLE=CHAIR;ATTSTAT=ACCEPTED:foo1@example.com ATTENDEE;RSVP=YES;TYPE=INDIVIDUAL:mailto:foo2@example.com ATTENDEE;RSVP=YES;TYPE=INDIVIDUAL:mailto:foo3@example.com DTSTAMP:19970611T190000Z DTSTART:19970621T170000Z DTEND:199706211T173000Z SUMMARY:Let's discuss the attached document UID:calsvr.example.com-873970198738777-8aa Dawson, et. al. Standards Track [Page 13]
RFC 2447 iMIP November 1998 ATTACH:cid:calsvr.example.com-12345aaa SEQUENCE:0 STATUS:CONFIRMED END:VEVENT END:VCALENDAR ----00FEE3790DC7E35189CA67CE2C00 ----FEE3790DC7E35189CA67CE2C Content-Type: application/msword; name="FieldReport.doc" Content-Transfer-Encoding: base64 Content-Disposition: inline; filename="FieldReport.doc" Content-ID: <calsvr.example.com-12345aaa> R0lGODdhTAQZAJEAAFVVVd3d3e4AAP///ywAAAAATAQZAAAC/5yPOSLhD6OctNqLs94XqAG 4kiW5omm6sq27gvH8kzX9o1y+s73/g8MCofEovGITCoxKMbyCR16cNSq9YrNarfcrvdriIH 5LL5jE6rxc3G+v2cguf0uv2Oz+v38L7/DxgoOKjURnjIIbe3yNjo+AgZWYVIWWl5iZnJY6J. ----FEE3790DC7E35189CA67CE2C 5 Recommended Practices This section outlines a series of recommended practices when using a messaging transport to exchange iCalendar objects. 5.1 Use of Content and Message IDs The [iCAL] specification makes frequent use of the URI for data types in properties such as "DESCRIPTION", "ATTACH", "CONTACT" and others. Two forms of URIs are Message ID (MID) and Content ID (CID). These are defined in [RFC 2111]. Although [RFC 2111] allows referencing messages or MIME body parts in other MIME entities or stores, it is strongly recommended that iMIP implementations include all referenced messages and body parts in a single MIME entity. Simply put, if an iCalendar object contains CID or MID references to other messages or body parts, implementations should ensure that these messages and/or body parts are transmitted with the iCalendar object. If they are not there is no guarantee that the receiving "CU" will have the access or the authorization to view those objects. Dawson, et. al. Standards Track [Page 14]
RFC 2447 iMIP November 1998 6 Bibliography [CHST] Character Sets, ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in- notes/iana/assignments/character-sets [iCAL] Dawson, F. and D. Stenerson, "Internet Calendaring and Scheduling Core Object Specification - iCalendar", RFC 2445, November 1998. [iTIP] Silverberg, S., Mansour, S., Dawson, F. and R. Hopson, "iCalendar Transport-Independent Interoperability Protocol (iTIP): Scheduling Events, Busy Time, To-dos and Journal Entries", RFC 2446, November 1998. [RFC 822] Crocker, D., "Standard for the Format of ARPA Internet Text Messages", STD 11, RFC 822, August 1982. [RFC 1847] Galvin, J., Murphy, S., Crocker, S. and N. Freed, "Security Multiparts for MIME: Multipart/Signed and Multipart/Encrypted", RFC 1847, October 1995. [RFC 2045] Freed, N. and N. Borenstein, "Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) - Part One: Format of Internet Message Bodies", RFC 2045, November 1996. [RFC 2046] Freed, N. and N. Borenstein, "Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) - Part Two: Media Types", RFC 2046, November 1996. [RFC 2047] Moore, K., "Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) - Part Three: Message Header Extensions for Non-ASCII Text", RFC 2047, November 1996. [RFC 2048] Freed, N., Klensin, J. and J. Postel, "Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) - Part Four: Registration Procedures", RFC 2048, January 1997. [RFC 2111] Levinson, E., "Content-ID and Message-ID Uniform Resource Locators", RFC 2111, March 1997. [RFC 2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. Dawson, et. al. Standards Track [Page 15]
RFC 2447 iMIP November 1998 7 Authors' Addresses The following address information is provided in a vCard v3.0, Electronic Business Card, format. BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:3.0 N:Dawson;Frank FN:Frank Dawson ORG:Lotus Development Corporation ADR;TYPE=WORK,POSTAL,PARCEL:;;6544 Battleford Drive;Raleigh;NC;27613-3502;USA TEL;TYPE=WORK,MSG:+1-919-676-9515 TEL;TYPE=WORK,FAX:+1-919-676-9564 EMAIL;TYPE=INTERNET:fdawson@earthlink.net URL:http://home.earthlink.net/~fdawson END:VCARD BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:3.0 N:Mansour;Steve FN:Steve Mansour ORG:Netscape Communications Corporation ADR;TYPE=WORK,POSTAL,PARCEL:;;501 East Middlefield Road;Mountain View;CA;94043;USA TEL;TYPE=WORK,MSG:+1-650-937-2378 TEL;TYPE=WORK,FAX:+1-650-937-2103 EMAIL;TYPE=INTERNET:sman@netscape.com END:VCARD BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:3.0 N:Silverberg;Steve FN:Steve Silverberg ORG:Microsoft Corporation ADR;TYPE=WORK,POSTAL,PARCEL:;;One Microsoft Way; Redmond;WA;98052-6399;USA TEL;TYPE=WORK,MSG:+1-425-936-9277 TEL;TYPE=WORK,FAX:+1-425-936-8019 EMAIL;TYPE=INTERNET:stevesil@Microsoft.com END:VCARD Dawson, et. al. Standards Track [Page 16]
RFC 2447 iMIP November 1998 The iCalendar Object is a result of the work of the Internet Engineering Task Force Calendaring and scheduling Working Group. The chairmen of that working group are: BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:3.0 N:Ganguly;Anik FN:Anik Ganguly ORG:Open Text Inc. ADR;TYPE=WORK,POSTAL,PARCEL:;Suite 101;38777 West Six Mile Road; Livonia;MI;48152;USA TEL;TYPE=WORK,MSG:+1-734-542-5955 EMAIL;TYPE=INTERNET:ganguly@acm.org END:VCARD BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:3.0 N:Moskowitz;Robert FN:Robert Moskowitz EMAIL;TYPE=INTERNET:rgm-ietf@htt-consult.com END:VCARD Dawson, et. al. Standards Track [Page 17]
RFC 2447 iMIP November 1998 8. Full Copyright Statement Copyright (C) The Internet Society (1998). All Rights Reserved. This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise explain it or assist in its implementation may be prepared, copied, published and distributed, in whole or in part, without restriction of any kind, provided that the above copyright notice and this paragraph are included on all such copies and derivative works. However, this document itself may not be modified in any way, such as by removing the copyright notice or references to the Internet Society or other Internet organizations, except as needed for the purpose of developing Internet standards in which case the procedures for copyrights defined in the Internet Standards process must be followed, or as required to translate it into languages other than English. The limited permissions granted above are perpetual and will not be revoked by the Internet Society or its successors or assigns. This document and the information contained herein is provided on an "AS IS" basis and THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET ENGINEERING TASK FORCE DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE INFORMATION HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. Dawson, et. al. Standards Track [Page 18]

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