RFCs in HTML Format


RFC 1580

                    Guide to Network Resource Tools

Table of Contents

    1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
    2. GOPHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
      2.1. What is Gopher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
      2.2. Who can use Gopher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
      2.3. How to get to Gopher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
      2.3.1. Local clients  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
      2.3.2. Remote clients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
      2.4. Using Gopher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
      2.5. VERONICA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
      2.6. Learning more about Gopher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
    3. WORLD-WIDE WEB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
      3.1. What is World-Wide Web . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
      3.2. Who can use World-Wide Web . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
      3.3. How to get to World-Wide Web . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
      3.3.1. Local clients  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
      3.3.2. Remote clients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
      3.3.2.1. E-mail access  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
      3.4. Using World-Wide Web . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
      3.5. Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
      3.6. Learning more about World-Wide Web . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
    4. WAIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
      4.1. What is WAIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
      4.2. Who can use WAIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
      4.3. How to get to WAIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
      4.4. Using WAIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
      4.4.1.  E-mail access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
      4.5. Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
      4.6  Learning more about WAIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
    5. ARCHIE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
      5.1. What is ARCHIE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
      5.2. Who can use ARCHIE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
      5.3. How to get to ARCHIE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28



EARN Staff                                                      [Page 1]

RFC 1580 Guide to Network Resource Tools March 1994 5.4. Using ARCHIE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 5.4.1. Using a local client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 5.4.1.1. Archie client command and parameters . . . . . . . . . 29 5.4.2. Using Telnet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 5.4.3. Using electronic mail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 5.5. Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 5.6. Learning more about ARCHIE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 6. WHOIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 6.1. What is WHOIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 6.2. Who can use WHOIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 6.3. How to get to WHOIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 6.4. Using WHOIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 6.4.1. Using a local client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 6.4.2. Using Telnet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 6.4.3. Using electronic mail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 6.5. Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 6.6. Learning more about WHOIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 7. X.500 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 7.1. What is X.500 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 7.2. Who can use X.500 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 7.3. How to get to X.500 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 7.4. Using X.500 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 7.4.1. Using a local client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 7.4.2. Using Telnet or X.25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 7.4.3. Using electronic mail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 7.5. Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 7.6. Learning more about X.500 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 8. NETFIND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 8.1. What is NETFIND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 8.2. Who can use NETFIND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 8.3. How to get to NETFIND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 8.4. Using NETFIND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 8.4.1. Local access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 8.4.2. Remote access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 8.5. Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 8.6. Learning more about NETFIND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 9. TRICKLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 9.1. What is TRICKLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 9.2. Who can use TRICKLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 9.3 How to get to TRICKLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 9.4. Using TRICKLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 9.5. Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 9.6. Learning more about TRICKLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 10. BITFTP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 10.1. What is BITFTP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 10.2. Who can use BITFTP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 10.3. How to get to BITFTP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 10.4. Using BITFTP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 EARN Staff [Page 2]
RFC 1580 Guide to Network Resource Tools March 1994 10.5. Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 10.6. Learning more about BITFTP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 11. LISTSERV (Version 1.7f). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 11.1. What is LISTSERV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 11.2. Who can use LISTSERV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 11.3. How to get to LISTSERV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 11.4. Using LISTSERV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 11.4.1. Commands for LISTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 11.4.2. Commands for FILES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 11.4.3. LISTSERV DATABASE Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 11.4.4. Commands for INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 11.5. Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 11.6. Learning more about LISTSERV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 12. NETNEWS (USENET) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 12.1. What is NETNEWS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 12.2. Who can use NETNEWS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 12.3. How to get to NETNEWS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 12.4. Using NETNEWS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 12.5. Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 12.6. Learning more about NETNEWS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 13. OTHER TOOLS OF INTEREST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 13.1. ASTRA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 13.1.1. What is ASTRA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 13.1.2. How to get to ASTRA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 13.1.3. Learning more about ASTRA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 13.2. NETSERV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 13.2.1. What is NETSERV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 13.2.2. How to get to NETSERV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 13.2.3. Learning more about NETSERV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 13.3. MAILBASE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 13.3.1. What is MAILBASE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 13.3.2. How to get to MAILBASE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 13.3.3. Learning more about MAILBASE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 13.4. PROSPERO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 13.4.1. What is PROSPERO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 13.4.2. How to get to PROSPERO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 13.4.3. Learning more about PROSPERO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 13.5. IRC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 13.5.1. What is IRC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 13.5.2. How to get to IRC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 13.5.3. Learning more about IRC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 13.6. RELAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 13.6.1. What is RELAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 13.6.2. How to get to RELAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 13.6.3. Learning more about RELAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 14. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 15. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 16. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 EARN Staff [Page 3]
RFC 1580 Guide to Network Resource Tools March 1994 17. Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 18. Appendix A - Freely available networking software . . . . . 103 18.1. Gopher clients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 18.2. World-Wide Web clients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 18.3. WAIS clients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 18.4. Netnews - news reader software . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 1. Introduction As the worldwide academic computer network grows and expands far beyond its previous confines, so the resources and services available on the network evolve and multiply at a dizzying rate. The typical user is hardpressed to keep up with this explosive growth. Fortunately, a number of tools are available to facilitate the task of locating and retrieving network resources, so that users anywhere can utilize texts, data, software and information for public access. Facilities to explore public domain software repositories, to consult mailing list archives and databases, to retrieve directory information and to participate in global group discussions are now available to all. The key to exploiting these resources is a server, special software on a computer somewhere in the network which accepts requests (or queries or commands) and sends a response automatically. The requestor does not have to be working on the same computer (or even in the same part of the world) in order to use the server. Many servers accept requests via electronic mail, so that often the requestor needs not even be on the same computer network as the server. In many cases, servers are interconnected so that once you have established contact with one server, you can easily communicate with other servers as well. Today, many users have powerful computers on the desktop, with advanced graphical, audio and storage capabilities, which are connected to the network. This fact has given rise to what is known as the client-server model. Users can have special software on their local computer called a client which can utilize the capabilities of that computer and can also communicate with a server on the network. These clients provide an easy-to-use, intuitive user interface, allow use of pointing devices such as a mouse, and exploit other local features. The client sends the user's requests to a server using a standardized format (called a protocol) and the server sends its response in a condensed format which the client displays to the user in a more readable way. Several of the tools described herein have several different functions. However they could be classified in functional areas according to their main purpose. Sections two and three cover two EARN Staff [Page 4]
RFC 1580 Guide to Network Resource Tools March 1994 services, Gopher and World-Wide Web, which use the client-server model to explore the network providing a means of moving through a wide range of network sources and resources in a uniform and intuitive way. A tool for searching in a wide range of different databases located throughout the network, WAIS, is documented in section four. The problem of knowing where to find network resources (files and programs) is addressed in section five, which deals with archie. Three tools for finding people, computers and their network addresses, WHOIS, X.500 and Netfind, are discussed in sections six, seven and eight. While just about all of these network tools can be used to get files of one sort or another, there are a few servers available for getting files easily and efficiently from various repositories in the network. Two of these servers, TRICKLE and BITFTP, are covered in sections nine and ten. Sections eleven and twelve deal with what is perhaps the most popular of all the network resources, discussion groups on every imaginable topic. The two tools discussed there are LISTSERV and Netnews (Usenet). Section thirteen gives brief descriptions and pointers for a number of tools which were not mainstream enough to get a full description. Some are still in the developmental stage (Prospero), some are relatively unknown outside a particular network (ASTRA and Netserv from EARN/Bitnet and Mailbase from JANET) and some are meant for chatting rather than work (Relay and IRC). The purpose of this guide is to supply the basic information that anyone on the network needs to try out and begin using these tools. A basic knowledge of networking terminology has been assumed, as well as familiarity with the basic tools of networking: electronic mail (often referred to as e-mail or simply mail throughout this guide) and, for those connected to the Internet, FTP (file transfer protocol) and Telnet (remote login). It is beyond the scope of this guide to describe these basic tools. The example in the BITFTP section of this guide shows how one can use BITFTP to get guides to these tools over the network. 2. GOPHER 2.1. What is Gopher The Internet Gopher, or simply Gopher, is a distributed document delivery service. It allows users to explore, search and retrieve information residing on different locations in a seamless fashion. When browsing it, the information appears to the user as a series of nested menus. This kind of menu structure resembles the organization of a directory with many subdirectories and files. The subdirectories and the files may be located either on the local server site or on remote sites served by other Gopher servers. From the user point of EARN Staff [Page 5]
RFC 1580 Guide to Network Resource Tools March 1994 view, all information items presented on the menus appear to come from the same place. The information can be a text or binary file, directory information (loosely called phone book), image or sound. In addition, Gopher offers gateways to other information systems (World-Wide Web, WAIS, archie, WHOIS) and network services (Telnet, FTP). Gopher is often a more convenient way to navigate in a FTP directory and to download files. A Gopher server holds the information and handles the users' queries. In addition, links to other Gopher servers create a network wide cooperation to form the global Gopher web (Gopherspace). 2.2. Who can use Gopher Gopher uses the client-server model to provide access to the Gopher web. You must be on the international TCP/IP network (the Internet) in order to use a client on your computer to access Gopher. 2.3. How to get to Gopher Users explore the Gopher menus using various local clients or accessing a remote client via an interactive Telnet session. 2.3.1. Local clients Public domain clients for accessing a Gopher server are available for: Macintosh, MS-DOS, OS/2, VM/CMS, VMS, NeXT, Unix, X-Windows. The clients are available for anonymous FTP from many FTP sites (e.g., boombox.micro.umn.edu in the directory /pub/gopher). See the list of freely available client software in Appendix A. 2.3.2. Remote clients Some sites allow public access to a client. To access such a remote client, telnet to one of these sites: +---------------------------------------------------------------+ | info.anu.edu.au Australia (login: info) | | tolten.puc.cl Columbia | | ecnet.ec Ecuador | | gopher.chalmers.se Sweden | | consultant.micro.umn.edu USA | | gopher.uiuc.edu USA | | panda.uiowa.edu USA (login: panda) | | sunsite.unc.edu USA | +---------------------------------------------------------------+ EARN Staff [Page 6]
RFC 1580 Guide to Network Resource Tools March 1994 At the login: prompt type gopher (unless specified otherwise) and the top-level Gopher menu for that site will be displayed. Users are requested to use the site closest to them. 2.4. Using Gopher The implementations of the Gopher clients on various platforms are slightly different to take advantage of the platforms' capabilities (mouse, graphic functions, X-Windows server) and to offer the popular look and feel. Even with different implementations, the same set of functions and commands is available. When issuing the gopher command, you will be connected automatically to the default Gopher server specified at the installation. The format of the command is: +---------------------------------------------------------------+ | | | gopher <hostname> | | | +---------------------------------------------------------------+ where hostname is an optional alternative Gopher server you want to talk to. When connected to a Gopher server, it is still possible to access another server by exploring the Other Gopher servers in the rest of the world branch. To locate them more easily, the Gopher servers are distributed in geographical regions: * Africa * Europe * Middle East * North America * Pacific * South America and then by countries. Access to a Gopher server is identical whether using a local or a remote client: a simple menu-driven interface which doesn't require any special training or knowledge from the user. Here is a sample menu: EARN Staff [Page 7]
RFC 1580 Guide to Network Resource Tools March 1994 ----------------------------------------------------------------- Internet Gopher Information Client v1.1 Information About Gopher 1. About Gopher. 2. Search Gopher News <?> 3. Gopher News Archive/ 4. comp.infosystems.gopher (Usenet newsgroup)/ 5. Gopher Software Distribution/ 6. Gopher Protocol Information/ 7. University of Minnesota Gopher software licensing policy. 8. Frequently Asked Questions about Gopher. 9. gopher93/ 10. Gopher| example server/ 11. How to get your information into Gopher. --> 12. New Stuff in Gopher. 13. Reporting Problems or Feedback. 14. big Ann Arbor gopher conference picture.gif <Picture> Press ? for Help, q to Quit, u to go up a menu Page: 1/1 ----------------------------------------------------------------- In the example above, any item can be selected by typing its line number or by moving the cursor (-->) next to it. An item could be: * a subdirectory * a text file * a binary file * a sound file * an image file * a phone book (directory information) * an index-search * a Telnet session Items are displayed with an identifying symbol next to them. In the example above, "<?>" means a full text index-search, "/" means a subdirectory, "<Picture>" means an image file and no symbol means a text file. Some Gopher clients are not able to handle certain file types (e.g., sound files). Some clients display only files of types they can handle or files they suppose you are interested in. Others EARN Staff [Page 8]
RFC 1580 Guide to Network Resource Tools March 1994 display all types of files. Most Gopher clients allow you to create, view and select bookmarks. A bookmark keeps track of the exact location of a Gopher item, regardless of where it resides. It is useful when you often need to reach a file or a service located far from the top-level directory. A collection of bookmarks is like a customized Gopher menu. Some capabilities of a local Gopher client are bound to the capabilities of your own computer. In fact, for sound files, image files and Telnet sessions, the Gopher client looks for the appropriate software on your computer and passes control to it to perform the requested task. When the task is completed, control is returned to the Gopher client. At any time, it is possible to terminate the session (quit command), to cancel the current processing or to get the on-line help (help command). An item is processed according to its type: a subdirectory its contents are displayed. To go up one level, use the up command. a text file the file is displayed. Then you can browse it, search for a particular string, print it on a local printer or copy (save) it onto your local disk space in a user-specified file (the last 2 functions may not be available to you). a binary file the remote file is simply copied onto your local disk space in a user-specified file. Binary files are binhexed Macintosh files, archives (.zip, .tar,...), compressed files, programs, etc. a sound file the remote file is played through your local audio device if it exists, as well as the appropriate utility. Only one sound file can be active at a time; you will be warned if you try to play a sound before a previous one is done. an image file the remote file is displayed on your computer screen if an image viewer exists on your computer. EARN Staff [Page 9]
RFC 1580 Guide to Network Resource Tools March 1994 a phone book you are prompted for a search string to look up people information through the selected phone book. Since different institutions have different directory services, the queries are not performed in the same fashion. an index-search you are prompted for a search string which may be one or more words, plus the special operators and, or, and not. The search is case-insensitive. Usually, an index is created to help users locate the information in a set of documents quickly. E.g.: terminal and setting or tset will find all documents which contain both the words terminal and setting, or the word tset. or is nonexclusive so the documents may contain all of the words. The result of the index-search looks like any Gopher menu, but each menu item is a file that contains the specified search string. a Telnet session Telnet sessions are normally text-based information services, for example, access to library catalogs. 2.5. VERONICA Veronica was designed as a solution to the problem of resource discovery in the rapidly-expanding Gopher web, providing a keyword search of more than 500 Gopher menus. Veronica helps you find Gopher-based information without doing a menu-by-menu, site-by-site search. It is to the Gopher information space, what archie is to the FTP archives. Veronica is accessible from most top-level Gopher menus or from the Other Gopher servers... branch. There is no need for opening another connection or another application. When you choose a veronica search , you will be prompted to enter a keyword or keywords. The simplest way to search with veronica is to enter a single word and hit the RETURN key. It does not matter whether the word is upper-case or lower-case. The veronica server will return a gopher menu composed of items whose titles match your keyword specification. Items can be accessed as with any Gopher menu. E.g.: eudora EARN Staff [Page 10]
RFC 1580 Guide to Network Resource Tools March 1994 will give you a list of menu titles that contain eudora, such as: Electronic Mail: Eudora on Macintosh, Micro-08 Modem Setting Eudora Slip. A UNIX-based Eudora reader for those that ... Eudora: Popmail for the Macintosh. Eudora. etc. The search string may contain keywords optionally separated by and, or and not. If there is no operator between 2 keywords, and is assumed. E.g.: eudora and macintosh will give you a list of menu titles that contain both eudora and macintosh, such as: Eudora: Popmail for the Macintosh. v4.1 EUDORA: E-MAIL FOR THE MACINTOSH. Micro News: Eudora - A Mailer for the Macintosh. Eudora: Electronic Mail on Your Macintosh. ACS News - Eudora Mail Reader for Macintosh. etc. "*" is the wildcard character. It can replace any other character or characters at the end of a keyword. E.g.: desk* will give you a list of menu titles, such as: The Help Desk. Keene State College Press Release COMPUTER ON EVERY DESK. DESKQview/X... An alternative to Windows???. Ethernet at Your Desktop/ etc. 2.6. Learning more about Gopher The Internet Gopher is developed by the Computer and Information Services Department of the University of Minnesota. Bug reports, comments, suggestions, etc. should be mailed to the Gopher development team at: gopher@boombox.micro.umn.edu. EARN Staff [Page 11]
RFC 1580 Guide to Network Resource Tools March 1994 Mailing list: gopher-news@boombox.micro.umn.edu To subscribe send a mail to: gopher-news-request@boombox.micro.umn.edu Usenet newsgroup: comp.infosystems.gopher A comprehensive description of veronica search methods is available from the veronica menus. Veronica is being developed by Steve Foster and Fred Barrie at the University of Nevada. Bug reports, comments, suggestions, etc. should be addressed to: gophadm@futique.scs.unr.edu 3. WORLD-WIDE WEB 3.1. What is World-Wide Web World-Wide Web (also called WWW or W3) is an information system based on hypertext, which offers a means of moving from document to document (usually called to navigate) within a network of information. Hypertext documents are linked to each other through a selected set of words. For example, when a new word, or a new concept, is introduced in a text, hypertext makes it possible to point to another document which gives more details about it. The reader can open the second document by selecting the unknown word or concept and the relevant section is displayed. The second document may also contain links to further details. The reader need not know where the referenced document is, and there is no need to type a command to display it, or to browse it to find the right paragraph. Cross-references may be defined in the same document. A collection of documents is a database. If you were reading this document on a hypertext system, instead of this all too short explanation about hypertext, you would have a selectable pointer to a complete hypertext information web with examples and more pointers to other definitions. For instance, in the first document you might read: ----------------------------------------------------------------- The WorldWideWeb (W3) is a wide-area "hypermedia" information retrieval initiative aiming to give universal access to a large universe of documents. ----------------------------------------------------------------- EARN Staff [Page 12]
RFC 1580 Guide to Network Resource Tools March 1994 Selecting hypermedia will display the following explanation for you: ----------------------------------------------------------------- WHAT IS HYPERTEXT Hypertext is text which is not constrained to be linear. Hypertext is text which contains "links" to other texts. The term was coined by "Ted Nelson" around 1965 (see "History"). HyperMedia is a term used for hypertext which is not constrained to be text: it can include graphics, video and "sound", for example. Apparently Ted Nelson was the first to use this term too. ----------------------------------------------------------------- Then you can learn more about links and Nelson. Indeed, the links in WWW are not confined to text only, so the term hypermedia is more accurate. For example, the link to Nelson might point to a file containing a picture of Ted Nelson. The picture would be displayed on your screen if you have a suitable configuration. Also, special documents (indexes) in the WWW information space can be search for given keyword(s). The result is a document which contains links to the documents found. World-Wide Web uses hypertext over the network: the linked documents may be located at various sites. WWW can handle different text formats and various information organizations. WWW also provides access to many of the other tools described in this guide. 3.2. Who can use World-Wide Web WWW uses the client-server model to provide access to the information universe. You must be on the international TCP/IP network (the Internet) in order to use a client on your computer to access WWW. If you are on the Internet, but don't have a WWW client on your computer, you can still enter the World-Wide Web. Several sites offer public interactive access to WWW clients (see the Remote clients section under How to get to World-Wide Web below). If you have e-mail access only, or if you are not on the Internet then you can not fully exploit the vast potential of WWW. However, a mail-robot is available at the address: listserv@info.cern.ch which gives e-mail access to WWW-accessible listserv@info.cern.ch files. (see E-mail access section under How to get to World-Wide Web below). EARN Staff [Page 13]
RFC 1580 Guide to Network Resource Tools March 1994 3.3. How to get to World-Wide Web Users access the World-Wide Web facilities via a client called a browser. This interface provides transparent access to the WWW servers. If a local WWW client is not available on your computer, you may use a client at a remote site. Thus, an easy way to start with WWW is to access a remote client. 3.3.1. Local clients Usage of a local client is encouraged since it provides better performance and better response time than a remote client. Public domain clients for accessing WWW servers are available for: Macintosh, MS-DOS, VMS, VM/CMS, MVS, NeXT, Unix, X-Windows. The clients are available for anonymous FTP from info.cern.ch in the directory /pub/www. All these platforms support a simple line mode browser. In addition, graphical clients are available for: Macintosh, Windows, X-Windows, NeXT and Unix. See the list of freely available client software in Appendix A. 3.3.2. Remote clients To access a remote WWW client, telnet to the client site. If you are new to WWW, you should telnet to info.cern.ch. No login is needed. You will immediately enter the WWW line mode browser. Some publicly accessible clients feature locally developed clients. Most remote clients are at sites with WWW servers with information on specific areas. After you telnet to the client site, at the login: prompt enter www, no password is needed. The following remote client sites are available: +---------------------------------------------------------------+ | | | Site Country Server Specialization| | | +---------------------------------------------------------------+ | vms.huji.ac.il Israel Environment | | info.cern.ch Switzerland (CERN) High-energy physics| | fatty.law.cornell.edu USA Law | | ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu USA History | | www.njit.edu USA | | | +---------------------------------------------------------------+ CERN is the entry point to find information about WWW itself and to have an overview of the Web with a catalogue of the databases sorted by subject. EARN Staff [Page 14]
RFC 1580 Guide to Network Resource Tools March 1994 3.3.2.1. E-mail access In order to get a file, send mail to listserv@info.cern.ch with a SEND command. The SEND command returns the document with the given WWW address, subject to certain restrictions. Hypertext documents are formatted to 72 character width, with links numbered. A separate list at the end of the file gives the document-addresses of the related documents. If the document is hypertext, its links will be marked by numbers in brackets, and a list of document addresses by number will be appended to the message. In this way, you can navigate through the web, more or less. A good file to start with would be: http://info.cern.ch./hypertext/DataSources/bySubject/Overview.html Note that, despite the name listserv in the address of this mail robot, it is not a LISTSERV server. A note of caution from the WWW developers and maintainers: "As the robot gives potential mail access to a *vast* amount of information, we must emphasise that the service should not be abused. Examples of appropriate use would be: * Accessing any information about W3 itself; * Accessing any CERN and/or physics-related or network development related information; Examples of INappropriate use would be: * Attempting to retrieve binaries or tar files or anything more than directory listings or short ASCII files from FTP archive sites; * Reading Usenet newsgroups which your site doesn't receive; * Repeated automatic use. There is currently a 1000 line limit on any returned file. We don't want to overload other people's mail relays or our server. We reserve the right to withdraw the service at any time. We are currently monitoring all use of the server, so your reading will not initially enjoy privacy. Enjoy!" The W3 team at CERN (www-bug@info.cern.ch) EARN Staff [Page 15]
RFC 1580 Guide to Network Resource Tools March 1994 3.4. Using World-Wide Web When using a graphical interface, you access the WWW functions by pressing mouse buttons. In particular, references are highlighted or underlined words. To follow a link, click on the associated reference. The line mode browser is a more simple user interface: references are numbers in square brackets next to words. Type the number and hit the RETURN key to follow a reference. For example, here is the beginning of the Subject Catalogue you get on the CERN server: ----------------------------------------------------------------- The World-Wide Web Virtual Library: Subject Catalogue WWW VIRTUAL LIBRARY This is the subject catalogue. See also arrangement by service type[1]. Mail www-request@info.cern.ch to add pointers to this list. Aeronautics Mailing list archive index[2]. See also NASA LaRC[3] Agriculture[4] Separate list, see also Almanac mail servers[5]. Astronomy and Astrophysics Abstract Indexes[6] at NASA, Astrophysics work at FNAL[7], Princeton's[8] Sloane Digital Sky Survey, the STELAR project, Space Telescope Electronic Information System[9], the Southampton University Astronomy Group[10], the National Solar Observatory[11], Astrophysics work at the AHPCRC[12]. See also: space[13]. Bio Sciences[14] Separate list. Computing[15] Separate list. 1-81, Back, <RETURN> for more, Quit, or Help: ----------------------------------------------------------------- The following commands are available within WWW. Some are disabled when not applicable (e.g., Find is enabled only when the current document is an index). Angle brackets (<>) indicate an optional parameter. EARN Staff [Page 16]
RFC 1580 Guide to Network Resource Tools March 1994 Help gives a list of available commands depending on the context, and the hypertext address of the current document. Manual displays the on-line manual. Quit exits WWW. Up, Down scrolls up or down one page in the current document. Top, BOttom goes to the top or the bottom of the current document. Back goes back to the document you were reading before. HOme goes back to the first document you were reading. Next, Previous goes to the next or previous document in the list of pointers from the document that led to the current one. List gives a numbered list of the links from the current document. To follow a link, type in the number. Recall <number> if number is omitted, gives a numbered list of the documents you have visited. To display one specific document, re-issue the command with number. <Find> keyword queries the current index with the supplied keyword(s). A list of matching entries is displayed with possibly links to further details. Find can be omitted if the first keyword does not conflict with another WWW command. Multiple keywords are separated by blanks. Go docaddress goes to the document represented by the given hypertext address, which is interpreted relatively to the current document. EARN Staff [Page 17]
RFC 1580 Guide to Network Resource Tools March 1994 Extra command available on Unix versions only: Print prints the current document, without the numbered document references. The default print command is lpr, but it may be defined in your local working environment by the variable WWW_PRINT_COMMAND. To access WWW with the line mode browser, type: www. The default first document will appear on your screen. From this point, you should be able to navigate through the WWW universe by reading the text and following the instructions at the bottom of the screen. If you want to start with a first document other than the default, or if you want to change some other aspect of the usual interaction, there are a number of command line parameters and options available. The full format of the www command to invoke the line mode browser is: +---------------------------------------------------------------+ | | | www <options> <docaddress <keyword>> | | | +---------------------------------------------------------------+ where: docaddress is the hypertext address of the document at which you want to start browsing. keyword queries the index specified by docaddress with the supplied keyword(s). A list of matching entries is displayed. Multiple keywords are separated by blanks. Options are: -n non-interactive mode. The document is formatted and displayed to the screen. Pages are delimited with form feed characters (FF). -listrefs adds a list of the addresses of all documents references to the end. Non-interactive mode only. -pn sets the page length to n lines. Without a number, makes the page length infinite. Default is 24. EARN Staff [Page 18]
RFC 1580 Guide to Network Resource Tools March 1994 -wn sets the page width to n columns. The default is 78, 79 or 80 depending on the system. -na hides references in the text. Useful, when printing out the document. -version displays the version number of the software. The commands listed above should be available in all clients. They may be abbreviated (CAPITAL letters indicate acceptable abbreviation). Case is not significant. Special characteristics of the line mode browser interface are: number type in a number given in [] and hit the RETURN key to follow the link associated to the reference. RETURN hit the RETURN key to display the next page of the current document (without a reference number). 3.5. Examples WWW gives you access to an information universe. Let's say you want to know how many film versions of The Three Musketeers there have been. You browse the WWW Subject Catalogue and select Movies: ----------------------------------------------------------------- Movie database browser (Cardiff) A Hypertext movie database browser Sep 2nd... Your help is needed..[1] Aug 29th.. Images, sounds, mpegs & reviews[2] Select the type of search you'd like to perform:- Movie people[3].....(multi Oscar winners)[4] or Movie titles[5] .....(multi Oscar winners)[6] Searches the "rec.arts.movies" movie database system, maintained by Col Needham et-al. EARN Staff [Page 19]
RFC 1580 Guide to Network Resource Tools March 1994 Here[7] is some information on list maintainers. If you have a comment or suggestion, it can be recorded here[8] HERE[9] is a pre-1986 movie information gopher server. (at Manchester UK) 1-13, Back, Up, <RETURN> for more, Quit, or Help: 5 ----------------------------------------------------------------- You select Movie titles, and then type three musketeers as keywords: ----------------------------------------------------------------- Movie title queries MOVIE TITLE QUERY Enter a movie title or substring. Example, to search for movies with the word "alien" in their title, type "alien". This will return details on several movies, including Aliens[1] Note: if the title begins with A or The, leave it out. If you're determined to include it, then put ', A' or ', The' at the end of the of the substring e.g. Enforcer, The Gauntlet, The Searching is case insensitive. search menu[2] Fun and Games page[3] COMMA home page[4] FIND <keywords>, 1-5, Back, Up, <RETURN> for more, or Help: three musketeers ----------------------------------------------------------------- You find that there have been six film versions of the story: EARN Staff [Page 20]
RFC 1580 Guide to Network Resource Tools March 1994 ----------------------------------------------------------------- Movie Info Here are the results from the search for "three musketeers" Three Musketeers, The (1921)[1] Three Musketeers, The (1933)[2] Three Musketeers, The (1935)[3] Three Musketeers, The (1939)[4] Three Musketeers, The (1948)[5] Three Musketeers, The (1974)[6] search menu[7] Fun and Games page[8] COMMA home page[9] Rob.H[10] Robert.Hartill@cm.cf.ac.uk FIND <keywords>, 1-10, Back, Up, Quit, or Help: 1 ----------------------------------------------------------------- You decide to look for more information on the 1921 version: ----------------------------------------------------------------- Movie Info Here are the results from the search for "Three Musketeers, The (1921)" THREE MUSKETEERS, THE (1921) 1921 Cast Belcher, Charles[1] ......Bernajoux De Brulier, Nigel[2] ......Cardinal Richelieu De La Motte, Marguerite[3] ......Constance Bonacieux Fairbanks, Douglas[4] ......D'Artagnan Irwin, Boyd[5] ......Comte de Rochefort MacLaren, Mary[6] ......Queen Anne of Austria Menjou, Adolphe[7] ......Louis XIII Pallette, Eugene[8] ......Aramis EARN Staff [Page 21]
RFC 1580 Guide to Network Resource Tools March 1994 Poff, Lon[9] ......Father Joseph Siegmann, George[10] ......Porthos Stevens, Charles[11] ......Planchet Directed by Niblo, Fred[12] Music by Gottschalk, Louis F.[13] 1-21, Back, Up, <RETURN> for more, Quit, or Help: 7 ----------------------------------------------------------------- You're hooked! You decide to look for more information on Adolphe Menjou, search more titles, find Oscar winners, etc. 3.6. Learning more about World-Wide Web World-Wide Web is being developed at CERN (European Particle Physics Laboratory) by the World-Wide Web team leaded by Tim Berners-Lee. Bug reports, comments, suggestions, etc. should be mailed to: www-bug@info.cern.ch On-line documentation is available from info.cern.ch, for anonymous FTP or using the remote WWW client. Mailing lists: www-talk@info.cern.ch To subscribe send a mail to www-talk-request@info.cern.ch Usenet newsgroup: comp.infosystems.www 4. WAIS 4.1. What is WAIS WAIS, Wide Area Information Server, is a distributed information retrieval system. It helps users search databases over networks using an easy-to-use interface. The databases (called sources) are mostly collections of text-based documents, but they may also contain sound, pictures or video as well. Databases on topics ranging from Agriculture to Social Science can be searched with WAIS. The databases may be organized in different ways, using various database systems, but the user isn't required to learn the query languages of the different databases. WAIS uses natural language queries to find relevant documents. The result of the query is a set of documents which contain the words of the query: no semantic information is extracted from the query. EARN Staff [Page 22]
RFC 1580 Guide to Network Resource Tools March 1994
RFC 1580 Guide to Network Resource Tools March 1994 You wish to subscribe to a file called BUGDET MEMO in a filelist called EXPENSES with an AFD: AFD ADD BUDGET MEMO EXPENSES To subscribe to a file called VM EMAIL in the DOC FILELIST with an FUI, you would send the following command to LISTSERV at node EARNCC (or EARNCC.EARN.NET): FUI ADD VM EMAIL DOC 11.6. Learning more about LISTSERV A standard set of help files are available upon request from each LISTSERV server. To get a copy of these files, use the INFO command (see the section Commands for INFORMATION). Detailed documentation on LISTSERV (and related services) is available from the DOC FILELIST at LISTSERV@EARNCC.EARN.NET (or LISTSERV@EARNCC.BITNET). This includes the LISTSERV User Guide which is available in both postscript and plain text formats. To obtain a list of available documents use the INDex command (see the section Commands for FILES). There are several mailing lists for discussion of technical LISTSERV issues. They are not intended for casual users, but they should be of interest to advanced users. They are: LSTSRV-L Technical forum on LISTSERV LSTOWN-L LISTSERV list owners' forum LDBASE-L Forum on LISTSERV database search capabilities 12. NETNEWS (USENET) 12.1. What is NETNEWS Netnews, or Usenet as it is more commonly called, is a message sharing system that exchanges messages electronically around the world in a standard format. Messages exchanged on Usenet are arranged by topic into categories called newsgroups. Netnews is, thus, a huge collection of messages, being passed from machine to machine. The messages may contain both plain text and encoded binary information. The messages also contain header lines that define who the message came from, when the message was posted, where it was posted, where it has passed, and other administrative information. EARN Staff [Page 87]
RFC 1580 Guide to Network Resource Tools March 1994 The major, hierarchical categories of Usenet newsgroups which are distributed throughout the world are alt, comp, misc, news, rec, sci, soc, and talk. There are many other major categories which may be topical (e.g., bionet, biz, vmsnet) and are usually distributed worldwide as well, or geographical and even organizational (e.g., ieee) or commercial (e.g., clari). The latter categories are usually distributed only with their area of interest. The messages of many Bitnet LISTSERV mailing lists are also distributed in Usenet under the major category bit. The major categories are further broken down into more than 1200 newsgroups on different subjects which range from education for the disabled to Star Trek and from environmental science to politics in the former Soviet Union. The quality of the discussion in newsgroups is not guaranteed to be high. Some newsgroups have a moderator who scans the messages for the group before they are distributed and decides which ones are appropriate for distribution. Usenet was originally developed for Unix systems in 1979. Within a year, fifty Unix sites were participating. Now, there are thousands of sites running a number of operating systems on a variety of hardware platforms communicating via Usenet around the globe. 12.2. Who can use NETNEWS Usenet newsgroups can be read at thousands of sites around the world. In addition, there are several sites that provide public dial-up service so that people who are not at a Usenet site can have access to newsgroups as well. If you don't know if your site has Usenet access, check with your local computer support people. Protocols and software for the distribution of news are in use in several networks, such as the Internet, UUCP, EARN/Bitnet and Fidonet. If you have e-mail service only, then you can not access Usenet. However, many newsgroups are connected to mailing lists which you could join. For a list of these newsgroups and their associated mailing lists, send mail to LISTSERV@AMERICAN.EDU with the line: GET NETGATE GATELIST. Moreover, many of the documents which appear periodically in newsgroups are available by e-mail from mail-server@rtfm.mit.edu. For instructions, send a message with the subject: HELP. EARN Staff [Page 88]
RFC 1580 Guide to Network Resource Tools March 1994 12.3. How to get to NETNEWS If your site provides Usenet access, then you just need to use one of the many software packages available for reading news (at least one is probably available on your computer). These packages either access a local news spool, or use the Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP) to access the news spool on some other computer in the network. Within EARN, a network of Netnews distribution has been developed, providing efficient distribution of Usenet traffic while minimizing the load on the network for the participating countries. If Usenet is not available to you and you would like to arrange access for your site, contact your system administrator. You should also read the article How to become a USENET site which is posted periodically to the news.answers newsgroup. It is also available by anonymous FTP from rtfm.mit.edu as /pub/usenet/news.answers/site-setup or by mail to: mail-server@rtfm.mit.edu with the line: send usenet/news.answers/site-setup. 12.4. Using NETNEWS There are many software packages available for reading and distributing Netnews on a variety of operating systems (Unix, VMS, VM/CMS, MVS, Macintosh, MS-DOS and OS/2) and environments (Emacs, X-Windows, MS-Windows). See the list of freely available news reader software packages in Appendix A. Note that the number of software packages available to run news, especially on PCs, is increasing. In addition to the software packages specifically designed to be news readers, many other communications programs, particular mail interfaces, provide the possibility for Usenet access in addition to their main function. Most, if not all, of the news readers provide the same basic abilities: * Subscribing to newsgroups: This means that your news reading software will make these groups immediately accessible, so that you can choose to read the postings of groups that interest you quickly and easily. * Unsubscribing from newsgroups: Removing groups from your easy access list. EARN Staff [Page 89]
RFC 1580 Guide to Network Resource Tools March 1994 * Reading newsgroup postings: Your news reader presents postings to you and keeps track of which postings you have and have not read. * Threads of discussion: You can follow groups of postings that deal with the same subject easily. * Posting to news groups: You can participate in group discussions; your news reader knows where to send your posting. * Responding to a posting: You can send a response to the newsgroup (often called follow-up) or to the author of a posting (often called reply). EARN Staff [Page 90]
RFC 1580 Guide to Network Resource Tools March 1994 12.5. Examples When you enter the tin news reader, you get a listing of the newsgroups to which you are subscribed: ----------------------------------------------------------------- Group Selection (9) h=help 1 30637 bit.listserv.novell local list 2 1106 comp.mail.misc General discussions about compu 3 8031 comp.protocols.tcp-ip TCP and IP network protocols. 4 840 comp.sys.mac 5 8789 news.answers Repository for periodic USENET -> 6 29 news.lists News-related statistics and lis 7 15056 rec.woodworking Hobbyists interested in woodwor 8 7094 sci.psychology Topics related to psychology. 9 13093 soc.culture.celtic Celtic, Irish, & Welsh culture *** End of Groups *** ---------------------------------------------------------------- In tin, selecting a newsgroup is done with the arrow keys. When you select a group, you get a listing of the articles: ---------------------------------------------------------------- comp.mail.misc (41T 64A 0K 0H) h=help 1 + RIPEM Frequently Noted Vulnerabilities Marc VanHeyningen 2 + RIPEM Frequently Asked Questions Marc VanHeyningen 3 + Mail Archive Server software list Jonathan I. Kamen 4 + 1 UNIX Email Software Survey FAQ Chris Lewis 5 + 2 PC Eudora and Trumpet Winsock problem Jim Graham 6 + X11 mail reader Dominique Marant 7 + MIME supporting e-mail Tim Goodwin 8 + 1 IBM User name and Address Server Wes Spears 9 + 5 Newbie needs MHS/SMTP question answered Chris Pearce 10 + FAQ - pine Bruce Lilly 11 + FAQ: International E-mail accessibility Olivier M.J. Crep -> 12 + PC E-Mail and Dial-in Edward Vielmetti 13 + Prodigy Mail Manager "01/07" an33127@anon.pene 14 + Prodigy Mail Manager "02/07" an33127@anon.pene 15 + Prodigy Mail Manager "03/07" an33127@anon.pene ---------------------------------------------------------------- EARN Staff [Page 91]
RFC 1580 Guide to Network Resource Tools March 1994 tins is a threaded news reader: replies to a posting are grouped together with the original posting, so that the reader can follow a thread of discussion. Above, you see the threads, the number of replies in each thread, the subject and the author. The plus sign (+) indicates that not all postings in the thread have been read. Other news readers show other details. When you select an item, it appears on your screen: ---------------------------------------------------------------- Wed, 01 Sep 1993 07:05:49 comp.mail.misc Thread 13 of 41 Lines 27 Re: PC E-Mail and Dial-in No responses emv@garnet.msen.com Edward Vielmetti at Msen, Inc. -- Ann Arbor Sherry H. Lake (slake@mason1.gmu.edu) wrote: : I am looking for an email package that will allow a user to : dial-in to his mail machine download any messages to his local : PC, delete the messages from the server and then automatically : sign him off. The user can then use his client software (local) : to read, compose and reply. He then would have to dial-in again : to so his outgoing mail will be uploaded to the server. Various POP clients for PCs or Windows Sockets will do roughly this. You should look at: - NUPOP (MS-DOS) - Eudora for Windows (Windows) - WinQVT/Net (Windows) - various commercial POP clients listed in the 'alt.winsock' directory of commercial Windows systems You'll want to look particularly for dial up IP software (SLIP or PPP) that makes the process of connecting minimally onerous, e.g. by scripting the session so that the users don't have to type anything, perhaps by automatically dialing for you when you go to read or otherwise open a network connection, and offering a reasonable way to disconnect. Edward Vielmetti, vice president for research, Msen Inc. emv@Msen.com Msen Inc., 628 Brooks, Ann Arbor MI 48103 +1 313 998 4562 (fax: 998 4563) ---------------------------------------------------------------- EARN Staff [Page 92]
RFC 1580 Guide to Network Resource Tools March 1994 12.6. Learning more about NETNEWS News programs communicate with each other according to standard protocols, some of which are described by Internet Request For Comments (RFC). Copies of RFCs are often posted to the network and obtainable from archive sites. Current news-related RFCs include the following: RFC 977 specifies NNTP, the Network News Transfer Protocol, RFC 1036 specifies the format of Usenet articles. Some newsgroups carry articles and discussions on the use of Usenet, notably: news.announce.newusers, news.answers and news.newusers.questions. Many of the articles which appear periodically in these newsgroups or in others are also available from rtfm.mit.edu by anonymous FTP or by mail to: mail-server@rtfm.mit.edu 13. OTHER TOOLS OF INTEREST 13.1. ASTRA 13.1.1. What is ASTRA The ASTRA service allows users to retrieve documents from databases known by ASTRA throughout the network. Users can send their queries to the ASTRA server which in turn forwards the query to the related database servers. This provides an easy-to-use uniform access method to a large number of databases. ASTRA provides the same user interface for all databases it can access, even if the database servers have different access languages, such as STAIRS, ISIS or SQL. Each database defined in ASTRA has an abstract which holds information about the database: title, name of the maintainers, a brief description of the database, the main topics of the database and its language. Users are advised to look at the abstracts before sending requests, to avoid sending requests to the wrong databases. Some databases actually combine several different databases that deal with the same topics. When a user sends a request for such a database, the request is forwarded to all related databases. EARN Staff [Page 93]
RFC 1580 Guide to Network Resource Tools March 1994 13.1.2. How to get to ASTRA Anyone who can send electronic mail to EARN/Bitnet can access ASTRA. Interactive user interfaces (clients) to ASTRA are available for VM and VMS systems on the EARN/Bitnet network. For all other users, there is a batch language that permits batch queries using e-mail. Currently there are five ASTRA servers installed at the following addresses: +---------------------------------------------------------------+ | | | ASTRADB@ICNUCEVM.BITNET or ASTRADB@VM.CNUCE.CNR.IT | | ASTRASQL@ICNUCEVM.BITNET or ASTRASQL@VM.CNUCE.CNR.IT | | ASTRADB@IFIBDP.BITNET | | ASTRADB@IFIIDG.BITNET or ASTRADB@IDG.FI.CNR.IT | | ASTRADB@IRMKANT.BITNET or ASTRADB@IRMKANT.RM.CNR.IT | | | +---------------------------------------------------------------+ 13.1.3. Learning more about ASTRA An extensive help file is available by sending the command HELP to ASTRADB@VM.CNUCE.CNR.IT (or ASTRADB@ICNUCEVM.BITNET). The LISTSERV list ASTRA-UG is used for the distribution of a newsletter about new databases or new versions of the current databases. To subscribe, send the command: SUB ASTRA-UG Your Name to LISTSERV@VM.CNUCE.CNR.IT (or LISTSERV@ICNUCEVM.BITNET). An ASTRA newsletter is also available by sending the command NEWS to ASTRADB@VM.CNUCE.CNR.IT (or ASTRADB@ICNUCEVM.BITNET). The developers of the ASTRA service may be contacted at: ASTRA@ICNUCEVM.CNUCE.CNR.IT (or ASTRA@ICNUCEVM.BITNET). 13.2. NETSERV 13.2.1 What is NETSERV NETSERV is a server, which allows fast access to data files and programs of interest to the EARN/Bitnet community. NETSERV provides a file repository consisting of information files and programs. It allows users to retrieve files, to store files and to subscribe to the files of their choice. The latter two functions however, require EARN Staff [Page 94]
RFC 1580 Guide to Network Resource Tools March 1994 that the user have a password for NETSERV (this is called a privileged user). In order to achieve a balanced load on the network and a faster response time to users, NETSERV uses a distributed server concept: this is achieved by the installation of a large number of servers on the network to ensure that the user can locate a nearby server. All servers communicate with each other to distribute updated information and make it available from each copy of the server. NETSERV's file server functions include retrieving any file present in its filelists, storing new versions of a file, and subscribing to files stored on the server. Its file directories are arranged in an hierarchical method, with NETSERV FILELIST being on top or at the root of the filelists. This filelist can be obtained by sending a GET NETSERV FILELIST command to any NETSERV. Filelists contain short descriptions of the files, and two access codes for each file. These codes represent the get and put privileges required for that file. These codes are explained at the beginning of the NETSERV FILELIST file. 13.2.2 How to get to NETSERV The server is available in almost every country. To find the closest server for your area send a QUERY SERVICE command to a server. The following are examples of NETSERV server addresses: +---------------------------------------------------------------+ | | | NETSERV@FRMOP11.BITNET or NETSERV@FRMOP11.CNUSC.FR | | NETSERV@HEARN.BITNET or NETSERV@HEARN.NIC.SURFNET.NL | | NETSERV@BITNIC.BITNET or NETSERV@BITNIC.CREN.NET | | | +---------------------------------------------------------------+ In EARN, there is only one NETSERV permitted for one country. However, in some limited cases, such as when the country has a large number of nodes, additional servers may be installed. In any case, the user is not required to run NETSERV to be able to access and use the server. NETSERV accepts e-mail access from users on any network. Commands to NETSERV should be placed in the body of the mail file, and not in the Subject: line. For users in the EARN/Bitnet network, NETSERV is accessible via interactive message. Commands from privileged users requiring a password must be sent this way. EARN Staff [Page 95]
RFC 1580 Guide to Network Resource Tools March 1994 NETSERV does not have delivery limitations, except that a file ordered from NETSERV cannot be ordered again on the same day. 13.2.3. Learning more about NETSERV The server provides a large helpfile which can be obtained by sending a GET NETSERV HELPFILE command to any NETSERV. A list for NETSERV maintainers is available as NETSRV-M@HEARN.NIC.SURFNET.NL (or NETSRV-M@HEARN.BITNET). Additional information can be obtained from the NETSERV maintainer, Ulrich Giese at U001212@HEARN.NIC.SURFNET.NL (or U001212@HEARN.BITNET). 13.3. MAILBASE 13.3.1. What is MAILBASE MAILBASE is an electronic information service with much of the same functionality as LISTSERV. It allows United Kingdom groups to manage their own discussion topics (Mailbase lists) and associated files. The Mailbase service is run as part of the JANET Networked Information Services Project (NISP) based at Newcastle University. 13.3.2. How to get to MAILBASE Commands should be sent in an electronic mail message to mailbase@mailbase.ac.uk. More than one command may appear in a message to Mailbase. Commands may be in any order, in UPPER, lower, or MiXeD case. 13.3.3 Learning more about MAILBASE For a summary of Mailbase commands, send the command help in an e-mail message to mailbase@mailbase.ac.uk. For a list of on-line documentation about Mailbase, send the command: index mailbase. You can then use the send command to retrieve those documents that interest you. E.g., to retrieve a file of frequently asked questions, send the following command: send mailbase user-faq. User support is also available by sending queries in an e-mail message to: mailbase-helpline@mailbase.ac.uk Public files on Mailbase are also available by anonymous FTP to mailbase.ac.uk EARN Staff [Page 96]
RFC 1580 Guide to Network Resource Tools March 1994 13.4. PROSPERO 13.4.1. What is PROSPERO PROSPERO is a distributed file system. It differs from traditional distributed file systems in several ways. In traditional file systems, the mapping of names to files is the same for all users. Prospero supports user centered naming: users construct customized views of the files that are accessible. A virtual system defines this view and controls the mapping from names to files. Objects may be organized in multiple ways and the same object may appear in different virtual systems, or even with multiple names in the same virtual system. In Prospero, the global file system consists of a collection of virtual file systems. Virtual file systems usually start as a copy of a prototype. The root contains links to files or directories selected by the user. The Prospero file system provides tools that make it easier to keep track of and organize information in large systems. When first created, your virtual file system is likely to contain links to directories that organize information in different ways. As the master copy of each of these directories is updated, you will see the changes. You may customize these directories. The changes you make to a customized directory are only seen from within your own virtual system, but changes made to the master copy will also be visible to you. Users are encouraged to organize their own projects and papers in a manner that will allow them to be easily added to the master directory. For example, users should consider creating a virtual directory that contains pointers to copies of each of the papers that they want made available to the outside world. This virtual directory may appear anywhere in the user's virtual system. Once set up, a link may be added to the master author directory. In this manner, others will be able to find this directory. Once added to the master directory, any future changes will be immediately available to other users. 13.4.2. How to get to PROSPERO In order to use Prospero, you must be on the international TCP/IP network (the Internet) and you must have Prospero running on your computer. Before you can begin using the Prospero file system a virtual system must be created for you. However, Prospero, as shipped, is configured EARN Staff [Page 97]
RFC 1580 Guide to Network Resource Tools March 1994 so that once you compile the clients you can type: vfsetup guest and start working right out of the box using a guest virtual system at the USC Information Sciences Institute. The latest version of PROSPERO is available as file prospero.tar.Z for anonymous FTP from prospero.isi.edu in the directory /pub/prospero. 13.4.3. Learning more about PROSPERO Prospero is being developed by Clifford Newman. Several documents and articles describing Prospero by Newman and others are available. The following files are available via anonymous FTP from prospero.isi.edu. They are also available through Prospero. * Anonymous FTP: /pub/papers/prospero/prospero-oir.ps.Z, * Prospero: /papers/subjects/operating-systems/prospero/prospero-oir.ps.Z. This is a useful first paper to read. It gives a good overview of Prospero and what it does. It also describes a bit about the Virtual System model, of which Prospero is a prototype implementation. It describes what Prospero does, not how it does it. * Anonymous FTP: /pub/papers/prospero/prospero-bii.ps.Z, * Prospero: /papers/subjects/operating-systems/prospero/prospero-bii.ps.Z. This paper describes how Prospero can be used to integrate Internet information services, including Gopher, WAIS, archie, and World-Wide Web. 13.5. IRC 13.5.1. What is IRC IRC, Internet Relay Chat, is a real-time conversational system. It is similar to the talk command which is available on many machines in the Internet. IRC does everything talk does, but it allows more than 2 users to talk at once, with access throughout the global Internet. It also provides many other useful features. IRC is networked over much of North America, Europe, and Asia. When you are talking in IRC, everything you type will instantly be transmitted around the world to other users who are connected at the EARN Staff [Page 98]
RFC 1580 Guide to Network Resource Tools March 1994 time. They can then type something and respond to your messages. Topics of discussion on IRC are varied. Technical and political discussions are popular, especially when world events are in progress. IRC is also a way to expand your horizons, as people from many countries and cultures are on, 24 hours a day. Most conversations are in English, but there are always channels in German, Japanese, and Finnish, and occasionally other languages. 13.5.2. How to get to IRC Clients and servers for IRC are available via anonymous FTP from cs.bu.edu. A few sites offer public access to IRC via Telnet. Two such sites are wbrt.wb.psu.edu and irc.demon.co.uk. At both sites, you should log in as irc. The many server hosts of Internet Relay Chat throughout the network are connected via a tree structure. The various servers relay control and message data among themselves to advertise the existence of other servers, users, and the channels and other resources being occupied by those users. Fundamental to the operation of IRC is the concept of a channel. All users are on a channel while inside IRC. You enter the null channel first. You cannot send any messages until you enter a chatting channel, unless you have set up a private conversation in some way. The number of channels is essentially unlimited. 13.5.3. Learning more about IRC To get help while in IRC, type /help and follow the instructions. If you have problems, you can contact Christopher Davis (ckd@eff.org) or Helen Rose (hrose@eff.org) - known on IRC as ckd and Trillian, respectively. You can also ask for help on some of the operator channels on IRC, for example #twilight_zone and #eu-opers. Various documents on IRC, and the archives of IRC-related mailing lists, are available via anonymous FTP from ftp.kei.com. 13.6. RELAY 13.6.1. What is RELAY The RELAY server system is a set of servers in the global EARN/Bitnet network which broadcast interactive messages from one user to other users signed on to the same channel of the RELAY system. A user signed on to the closest available RELAY is also virtually signed on EARN Staff [Page 99]
RFC 1580 Guide to Network Resource Tools March 1994 to all RELAYs which are linked to it. Most RELAYs are closed during peak hours. Only some RELAYs are up 24 hours a day. Each RELAY server provides service to a specific collection of one or more nodes designated as a service area. The functions of RELAY are available to EARN/Bitnet users with access to interactive messages who have not been expressly excluded from the system by RELAY management. RELAY is a program which allows several people to talk at the same time. In order to start, you must sign on to a RELAY to place your ID in the current user list. You communicate with RELAY through messages just as you would send messages to a user. RELAY commands start with a slash (/) character; anything not beginning with a slash is considered a message and is sent back out to all other current users. 13.6.2. How to get to RELAY RELAY is available at the following EARN/Bitnet addresses, and others. The nickname of the RELAY machine is in parentheses. +---------------------------------------------------------------+ | | | RELAY@ASUACAD (Sun_Devils) RELAY@PURCCVM (Purdue) | | RELAY@AUVM (Wash_DC) RELAY@SEARN (Stockholm) | | RELAY@BEARN (Belgium) RELAY@TAMVM1 (Aggieland) | | RELAY@BNANDP11 (Namur) RELAY@TAUNIVM (Israel) | | RELAY@CEARN (Geneva) RELAY@TECMTYVM (Monterrey) | | RLY@CORNELLC (Ithaca_NY) RELAY@TREARN (EgeRelay | | RELAY@CZHRZU1A (Zurich) MASRELAY@UBVM (Buffalo) | | RELAY@DEARN (Germany) RELAY@UFRJ (RioJaneiro) | | RELAY@DKTC11 (Copenhagen) RELAY@UIUCVMD (Urbana_IL) | | RELAY@FINHUTC (Finland) RELAY@USCVM (LosAngeles) | | RELAY@GITVM1 (Atlanta) RELAY@UTCVM (Tennessee) | | RELAY@GREARN (Hellas) RELAY@UWAVM (Seattle) | | RELAY@HEARN (Holland) RELAY@VILLVM (Philadelph) | | RELAY@ITESMVF1 (Mexico) RELAY@VMTECQRO (Queretaro) | | RELAY@JPNSUT00 (Tokyo) RELAY@VTBIT (Va_Tech) | | RELAY@NDSUVM1 (No_Dakota) RELAY@WATDCS (Waterloo) | | RELAY@NYUCCVM (NYU) RELAY@YALEVM (Yale) | | | +---------------------------------------------------------------+ RELAY is available to users on the EARN/Bitnet network via interactive message (e.g., the TELL command of VM or the SEND command of VMS/JNET). All RELAY server machines are on IBM VM/CMS systems, but you do not have to be a VM user in order to use RELAY. If you are EARN Staff [Page 100]
RFC 1580 Guide to Network Resource Tools March 1994 not in the EARN/Bitnet network, you can not use RELAY. CHAT, a full-screen interface to send and receive TELL messages for VM systems, is particularly useful for users of RELAY. CHAT is available from any NETSERV. 13.6.3. Learning more about RELAY Upon registration, the files RELAY INFO and RELAY USERGUIDE are sent to the user. These two files give a comprehensive description of RELAY. A brief guide to RELAY is available from the EARN documentation filelist. Send mail to LISTSERV@EARNCC.EARN.NET (or LISTSERV@EARNCC.BITNET). In the body of the message, write: GET RELAY MEMO. 14. Security Considerations Security issues are not discussed in this memo. 15. References Blue Book, Volume VIII - Fascicle VIII.8, Data Communication Networks Directory, Recommendations X.500-X.521, CCITT, 1988, ISBN 92-61- 03731-3 Schwartz, M., and P. Tsirigotis, "Experience with a Semantically Cognizant Internet White Pages Directory Tool", Journal of Internetworking Research and Experience, March 1991, pp. 23-50. Kantor, B., and P. Lapsley, "Network News Transfer Protocol: A Proposed Standard for the Stream-Based Transmission of News", RFC 977, UC San Diego & UC Berkeley, February 1986. Horton, M., and R. Adams, "Standard for interchange of USENET messages", RFC 1036, AT&T Bell Laboratories, Center for Seismic Studies, December 1987. Lang, R., and R. Wright, "A Catalog of Available X.500 Implementations", FYI 11, RFC 1292, SRI International, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, January 1992. Weider, C., and J. Reynolds, "Executive Introduction to Directory Services Using the X.500 Protocol", FYI 13, RFC 1308, ANS, ISI, March 1992 EARN Staff [Page 101]
RFC 1580 Guide to Network Resource Tools March 1994 Weider, C., Reynolds, J., and S. Heker, "Technical Overview of Directory Services Using the X.500 Protocol", FYI 14, RFC 1309, ANS, ISI, JvNC, March 1992. Williamson, S., "Transition and Modernization of the Internet Registration Service", RFC 1400, Network Solutions, Inc., March 1993. 16. Acknowledgements The work of many people is reflected here, but we owe our greatest debt of thanks to the developers and authors of the network tools and documentation. Their work serves as the basis for this guide. 17. Author's Address EARN Staff Daniele Bovio Ulrich Giese Nadine Grange Turgut Kalfaoglu Greg Lloyd David Sitman EARN Office PSI - Batiment 211 91405 Orsay CEDEX France Phone: +33 1 6941 2426 Fax: +33 1 6941 6683 EMail: earndoc@earncc.earn.net EARN Staff [Page 102]
RFC 1580 Guide to Network Resource Tools March 1994 18. Appendix A - Freely available networking software Below you will find the location of client software for several of the tools described in this guide (Gopher, WWW, WAIS and Netnews). This is not a complete listing of available software for any of these tools. 18.1 Gopher clients Environment FTP site & directory Comments Unix boombox.micro.umn.edu /pub/gopher/Unix VMS boombox.micro.umn.edu /pub/gopher/VMS job.acs.ohio-state.edu XGOPHER_CLIENT.SHARE for Wollongong or UCX VM/CMS boombox.micro.umn.edu /pub/gopher/Rice_CMS boombox.micro.umn.edu /pub/gopher/VieGOPHER MVS boombox.micro.umn.edu /pub/gopher/mvs Macintosh boombox.micro.umn.edu /pub/gopher/Macintosh-TurboGopher ftp.cc.utah.edu /pub/gopher/Macintosh requires MacTCP ftp.bio.indiana.edu /util/gopher/gopherapp requires MacTCP OS/2 boombox.micro.umn.edu /pub/gopher/os2 MS-DOS boombox.micro.umn.edu /pub/gopher/PC_client requires packet driver oac.hsc.uth.tmc.edu /public/dos/misc dosgopher, for PC/TCP EARN Staff [Page 103]
RFC 1580 Guide to Network Resource Tools March 1994 bcm.tmc.edu /nfs/gopher.exe for PC-NFS lennon.itn.med.umich.edu /dos/gopher for LAN Workplace for DOS MS-Windows sunsite.unc.edu /pub/micro/pc-stuff/ms-windows/winsock/apps Gopherbook X-Windows boombox.micro.umn.edu /pub/gopher/Unix xgopher (Athena widgets) boombox.micro.umn.edu /pub/gopher/Unix moog (Motif) boombox.micro.umn.edu /pub/gopher/Unix/xvgopher or Xview NeXT boombox.micro.umn.edu /pub/gopher/NeXT 18.2. World-Wide Web clients Environment FTP site & directory Comments Unix info.cern.ch /pub/www/src WWW line-mode browser ftp2.cc.ukans.edu /pub/WWW/lynx Lynx browser for vt100 terminals archive.cis.ohio-state.edu /pub/w3browser tty-based browser written in perl VMS info.cern.ch /pub/www/bin/vms port of NCSA Mosaic for X Macintosh info.cern.src /pub/www/bin/mac requires MacTCP EARN Staff [Page 104]
RFC 1580 Guide to Network Resource Tools March 1994 MS-Windows fatty.law.cornell.edu Cello /pub/LII/Cello Emacs moose.cs.indiana.edu /pub/elisp/w3 X-Windows info.cern.ch /pub/www/src tkWWW Browser/Editor info.cern.ch /pub/www/src MidasWWW Browser for X/Motif info.cern.ch /pub/www/src ViolaWWW Browser for X11 ftp.ncsa.uiuc.edu /Web NCSA Mosaic Browser for X11/Motif NeXT info.cern.ch /pub/www/bin/next Browser and Editor 18.3. WAIS clients Environment FTP site & directory Comments Unix ftp.wais.com /pub/freeware/unix-src swais VMS ftp.wais.com /pub/freeware/vms MVS ftp.wais.com /pub/freeware/ibm-mvs Macintosh ftp.wais.com /pub/freeware/mac OS/2 ftp.wais.com /pub/freeware/os2 MS-DOS sunsite.unc.edu /pub/wais/DOS hilbert.wharton.upenn.edu /pub/tcpip PCWAIS MS-Windows ftp.wais.com /pub/freeware/windows WNWAIS EARN Staff [Page 105]
RFC 1580 Guide to Network Resource Tools March 1994 ftp.cnidr.org /pub/NIDR.tools/wais/pc/windows Emacs ftp.wais.com /pub/freeware/unix-src gwais X-Windows ftp.wais.com /pub/freeware/unix-src xwais NeXT ftp.wais.com /pub/freeware/next 18.4. Netnews - news reader software Environment FTP site Name & Comments Unix lib.tmc.edu rn also available via e-mail to: archive-server@bcn.tmc.edu ftp.coe.montana.edu trn dkuug.dk nn ftp.germany.eu.net tin VMS kuhub.cc.ukans.edu ANU-NEWS arizona.edu VMS/VNEWS VM/CMS psuvm.psu.edu NetNews also available from LISTSERV@PSUVM ftp.uni-stuttgart.de NNR cc1.kuleuven.ac.be VMNNTP MVS ftp.uni-stuttgart.de NNMVS Macintosh ftp.apple.com News MS-DOS ftp.utas.edu.au Trumpet MS-Windows ftp.utas.edu.au WTrumpet X-Windows many FTP sites xrn export.lcs.mit.edu xvnews EARN Staff [Page 106]
RFC 1580 Guide to Network Resource Tools March 1994 Emacs most GNU sites GNUS for use with GNU Emacs editor most GNU sites Gnews for use with GNU Emacs editor



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